The European Cities in the 19th Century
Economic and social structures, cultural profiles and forms of power The 19th century interrupted the historical continuity of the urban structures, decreeing the end of the "villes closes" and laying the foundations of the contemporary city. Economic and social forces were pressing for renewal. They produced new needs, unbalanced the urban systems and required the cities to carry out new functions. This was opposed by the inertia of local physical and cultural structures. Were only trains and factories the agents of change? Or were there other factors? At the end of the 19th century, what was left of the ancient walled cities? What remained of the very concept of the city? What had been acquired, what had been lost? The analysis of the material and immaterial forms of European cities and power structures will try to answer these questions.