What is it to exist? To be? To ask a question like these? This course presents and evaluates some classic accounts of existence (Kant, Bolzano, Frege, Russell, Meinong, Quine) and some accounts, old and new, of so called modes of being, such as reality, actuality, life, subsistence, value, social being and temporal being. It then considers some relations between existence, understood as a second-order property, and a variety of fundamental first-order properties.
Daly, Ch. 2009 „To be“, The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics, ed. Poidevin, R. et al., 225-233.
Prior, A. « Existence », Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edwards, P.
Sylvan, R. 1991 « Existence », Handbook of Metaphysics and Ontology, Vol. I, eds. Smith, B. & Burckhardt, H. Munich : Philosophia, 259-263.
Williams Miller, B. Existence Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
McGinn, C. « Existence », ch. 2 Logical Properties. Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth, Oxford UP, 15-68
McDaniels 2017 The Fragmentation of Being, OUP, attached
Vallicella, W. 2002 A Paradigm Theory of Existence. Onto-Theology Vindicated, Dordrecht: Kluwer.